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Former investment bank FX trader: Risk management part 3/3
Welcome to the third and final part of this chapter. Thank you all for the 100s of comments and upvotes - maybe this post will take us above 1,000 for this topic! Keep any feedback or questions coming in the replies below. Before you read this note, please start with Part I and then Part II so it hangs together and makes sense. Part III
Squeezes and other risks
Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits
Squeezes and other risks
We are going to cover three common risks that traders face: events; squeezes, asymmetric bets.
Economic releases can cause large short-term volatility. The most famous is Non Farm Payrolls, which is the most widely watched measure of US employment levels and affects the price of many instruments.On an NFP announcement currencies like EURUSD might jump (or drop) 100 pips no problem. This is fine and there are trading strategies that one may employ around this but the key thing is to be aware of these releases.You can find economic calendars all over the internet - including on this site - and you need only check if there are any major releases each day or week. For example, if you are trading off some intraday chart and scalping a few pips here and there it would be highly sensible to go into a known data release flat as it is pure coin-toss and not the reason for your trading. It only takes five minutes each day to plan for the day ahead so do not get caught out by this. Many retail traders get stopped out on such events when price volatility is at its peak.
Short squeezes bring a lot of danger and perhaps some opportunity. The story of VW and Porsche is the best short squeeze ever. Throughout these articles we've used FX examples wherever possible but in this one instance the concept (which is also highly relevant in FX) is best illustrated with an historical lesson from a different asset class. A short squeeze is when a participant ends up in a short position they are forced to cover. Especially when the rest of the market knows that this participant can be bullied into stopping out at terrible levels, provided the market can briefly drive the price into their pain zone. There's a reason for the car, don't worry Hedge funds had been shorting VW stock. However the amount of VW stock available to buy in the open market was actually quite limited. The local government owned a chunk and Porsche itself had bought and locked away around 30%. Neither of these would sell to the hedge-funds so a good amount of the stock was un-buyable at any price. If you sell or short a stock you must be prepared to buy it back to go flat at some point. To cut a long story short, Porsche bought a lot of call options on VW stock. These options gave them the right to purchase VW stock from banks at slightly above market price. Eventually the banks who had sold these options realised there was no VW stock to go out and buy since the German government wouldn’t sell its allocation and Porsche wouldn’t either. If Porsche called in the options the banks were in trouble. Porsche called in the options which forced the shorts to buy stock - at whatever price they could get it. The price squeezed higher as those that were short got massively squeezed and stopped out. For one brief moment in 2008, VW was the world’s most valuable company. Shorts were burned hard. Incredible event Porsche apparently made $11.5 billion on the trade. The BBC described Porsche as “a hedge fund with a carmaker attached.” If this all seems exotic then know that the same thing happens in FX all the time. If everyone in the market is talking about a key level in EURUSD being 1.2050 then you can bet the market will try to push through 1.2050 just to take out any short stops at that level. Whether it then rallies higher or fails and trades back lower is a different matter entirely. This brings us on to the matter of crowded trades. We will look at positioning in more detail in the next section. Crowded trades are dangerous for PNL. If everyone believes EURUSD is going down and has already sold EURUSD then you run the risk of a short squeeze. For additional selling to take place you need a very good reason for people to add to their position whereas a move in the other direction could force mass buying to cover their shorts. A trading mentor when I worked at the investment bank once advised me: Always think about which move would cause the maximum people the maximum pain. That move is precisely what you should be watching out for at all times.
Also known as picking up pennies in front of a steamroller. This risk has caught out many a retail trader. Sometimes it is referred to as a "negative skew" strategy. Ideally what you are looking for is asymmetric risk trade set-ups: that is where the downside is clearly defined and smaller than the upside. What you want to avoid is the opposite. A famous example of this going wrong was the Swiss National Bank de-peg in 2012. The Swiss National Bank had said they would defend the price of EURCHF so that it did not go below 1.2. Many people believed it could never go below 1.2 due to this. Many retail traders therefore opted for a strategy that some describe as ‘picking up pennies in front of a steam-roller’. They would would buy EURCHF above the peg level and hope for a tiny rally of several pips before selling them back and keep doing this repeatedly. Often they were highly leveraged at 100:1 so that they could amplify the profit of the tiny 5-10 pip rally. Then this happened. Something that changed FX markets forever The SNB suddenly did the unthinkable. They stopped defending the price. CHF jumped and so EURCHF (the number of CHF per 1 EUR) dropped to new lows very fast. Clearly, this trade had horrific risk : reward asymmetry: you risked 30% to make 0.05%. Other strategies like naively selling options have the same result. You win a small amount of money each day and then spectacularly blow up at some point down the line.
We have talked about short squeezes. But how do you know what the market position is? And should you care? Let’s start with the first. You should definitely care. Let’s imagine the entire market is exceptionally long EURUSD and positioning reaches extreme levels. This makes EURUSD very vulnerable. To keep the price going higher EURUSD needs to attract fresh buy orders. If everyone is already long and has no room to add, what can incentivise people to keep buying? The news flow might be good. They may believe EURUSD goes higher. But they have already bought and have their maximum position on. On the flip side, if there’s an unexpected event and EURUSD gaps lower you will have the entire market trying to exit the position at the same time. Like a herd of cows running through a single doorway. Messy. We are going to look at this in more detail in a later chapter, where we discuss ‘carry’ trades. For now this TRYJPY chart might provide some idea of what a rush to the exits of a crowded position looks like. A carry trade position clear-out in action Knowing if the market is currently at extreme levels of long or short can therefore be helpful. The CFTC makes available a weekly report, which details the overall positions of speculative traders “Non Commercial Traders” in some of the major futures products. This includes futures tied to deliverable FX pairs such as EURUSD as well as products such as gold. The report is called “CFTC Commitments of Traders” ("COT"). This is a great benchmark. It is far more representative of the overall market than the proprietary ones offered by retail brokers as it covers a far larger cross-section of the institutional market. Generally market participants will not pay a lot of attention to commercial hedgers, which are also detailed in the report. This data is worth tracking but these folks are simply hedging real-world transactions rather than speculating so their activity is far less revealing and far more noisy. You can find the data online for free and download it directly here. Raw format is kinda hard to work with However, many websites will chart this for you free of charge and you may find it more convenient to look at it that way. Just google “CFTC positioning charts”. But you can easily get visualisations You can visually spot extreme positioning. It is extremely powerful. Bear in mind the reports come out Friday afternoon US time and the report is a snapshot up to the prior Tuesday. That means it is a lagged report - by the time it is released it is a few days out of date. For longer term trades where you hold positions for weeks this is of course still pretty helpful information. As well as the absolute level (is the speculative market net long or short) you can also use this to pick up on changes in positioning. For example if bad news comes out how much does the net short increase? If good news comes out, the market may remain net short but how much did they buy back? A lot of traders ask themselves “Does the market have this trade on?” The positioning data is a good method for answering this. It provides a good finger on the pulse of the wider market sentiment and activity. For example you might say: “There was lots of noise about the good employment numbers in the US. However, there wasn’t actually a lot of position change on the back of it. Maybe everyone who wants to buy already has. What would happen now if bad news came out?” In general traders will be wary of entering a crowded position because it will be hard to attract additional buyers or sellers and there could be an aggressive exit. If you want to enter a trade that is showing extreme levels of positioning you must think carefully about this dynamic.
Retail traders often drastically underestimate how correlated their bets are. Through bitter experience, I have learned that a mistake in position correlation is the root of some of the most serious problems in trading. If you have eight highly correlated positions, then you are really trading one position that is eight times as large. Bruce Kovner of hedge fund, Caxton Associates For example, if you are trading a bunch of pairs against the USD you will end up with a simply huge USD exposure. A single USD-trigger can ruin all your bets. Your ideal scenario — and it isn’t always possible — would be to have a highly diversified portfolio of bets that do not move in tandem. Look at this chart. Inverted USD index (DXY) is green. AUDUSD is orange. EURUSD is blue. Chart from TradingView So the whole thing is just one big USD trade! If you are long AUDUSD, long EURUSD, and short DXY you have three anti USD bets that are all likely to work or fail together. The more diversified your portfolio of bets are, the more risk you can take on each. There’s a really good video, explaining the benefits of diversification from Ray Dalio. A systematic fund with access to an investable universe of 10,000 instruments has more opportunity to make a better risk-adjusted return than a trader who only focuses on three symbols. Diversification really is the closest thing to a free lunch in finance. But let’s be pragmatic and realistic. Human retail traders don’t have capacity to run even one hundred bets at a time. More realistic would be an average of 2-3 trades on simultaneously. So what can be done? For example:
You might diversify across time horizons by having a mix of short-term and long-term trades.
You might diversify across asset classes - trading some FX but also crypto and equities.
You might diversify your trade generation approach so you are not relying on the same indicators or drivers on each trade.
You might diversify your exposure to the market regime by having some trades that assume a trend will continue (momentum) and some that assume we will be range-bound (carry).
And so on. Basically you want to scan your portfolio of trades and make sure you are not putting all your eggs in one basket. If some trades underperform others will perform - assuming the bets are not correlated - and that way you can ensure your overall portfolio takes less risk per unit of return. The key thing is to start thinking about a portfolio of bets and what each new trade offers to your existing portfolio of risk. Will it diversify or amplify a current exposure?
Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits
One common mistake is to get bored and restless and put on crap trades. This just means trades in which you have low conviction. It is perfectly fine not to trade. If you feel like you do not understand the market at a particular point, simply choose not to trade. Flat is a position. Do not waste your bullets on rubbish trades. Only enter a trade when you have carefully considered it from all angles and feel good about the risk. This will make it far easier to hold onto the trade if it moves against you at any point. You actually believe in it. Equally, you need to set monthly limits. A standard limit might be a 10% account balance stop per month. At that point you close all your positions immediately and stop trading till next month. Be strict with yourself and walk away Let’s assume you started the year with $100k and made 5% in January so enter Feb with $105k balance. Your stop is therefore 10% of $105k or $10.5k . If your account balance dips to $94.5k ($105k-$10.5k) then you stop yourself out and don’t resume trading till March the first. Having monthly calendar breaks is nice for another reason. Say you made a load of money in January. You don’t want to start February feeling you are up 5% or it is too tempting to avoid trading all month and protect the existing win. Each month and each year should feel like a clean slate and an independent period. Everyone has trading slumps. It is perfectly normal. It will definitely happen to you at some stage. The trick is to take a break and refocus. Conserve your capital by not trading a lot whilst you are on a losing streak. This period will be much harder for you emotionally and you’ll end up making suboptimal decisions. An enforced break will help you see the bigger picture. Put in place a process before you start trading and then it’ll be easy to follow and will feel much less emotional. Remember: the market doesn’t care if you win or lose, it is nothing personal. When your head has cooled and you feel calm you return the next month and begin the task of building back your account balance.
That's a wrap on risk management
Thanks for taking time to read this three-part chapter on risk management. I hope you enjoyed it. Do comment in the replies if you have any questions or feedback. Remember: the most important part of trading is not making money. It is not losing money. Always start with that principle. I hope these three notes have provided some food for thought on how you might approach risk management and are of practical use to you when trading. Avoiding mistakes is not a sexy tagline but it is an effective and reliable way to improve results. Next up I will be writing about an exciting topic I think many traders should look at rather differently: news trading. Please follow on here to receive notifications and the broad outline is below. News Trading Part I
Why use the economic calendar
Reading the economic calendar
Knowing what's priced in
First order thinking vs second order thinking
News Trading Part II
Preparing for quantitative and qualitative releases
Data surprise index
Using recent events to predict future reactions
Buy the rumour, sell the fact
The mysterious 'position trim' effect
Some key FX releases
*** Disclaimer:This content is not investment advice and you should not place any reliance on it. The views expressed are the author's own and should not be attributed to any other person, including their employer.
No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India
This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got. I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are) Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010. One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit. Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells. So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain). Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided. It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles.India bought something and paid for it.State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally. Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no. From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period,the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground. 1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example seeRajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist.[...]Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
Pipcoin is Africa’s first P2P Cryptocurrency and is more seen as an emerging digital currency that seeks to revolutionize accessibility and raise awareness about the importance of online trading to the multitudes of both the aspirant traders and those who are completely unaware of the abounding benefits and opportunities offered by the digital market. Thus, for all its worth as a potential life-changing tool, we want Pipcoin to be everybody’s business.
So this is new... lets take a look at their FAQ's because I have many! here are my favourite bits:
What Is The Structure Of A Pipcoin? Pipcoin Concept (for developers) -IF YOU HAVE 0,9999 MICRO-PIPS THEN IT WILL BE ROUNDED OFF TO 1.0000 – MAKING IT 1 PIPCOIN-
lol really? Where does that extra micro tit pip come from?
Why Pipcoin Isnt A Get Rich Quick Scheme Whenever there is a new digital breakthrough it is natural for people to be sceptic, this has been scientifically proven. Even at one stage the internet was said to be a scam, same goes to online trading, they said it won’t last. Same goes to Facebook; they said it’s an information-leaking scam. Same goes again to Bitcoin they said it’s a ‘failed experiment’. Pipcoin is the people’s currency and can never in a scale be compared to ponzi schemes and investment bonanzas; Pipcoin is a friend-to-friend digital currency which has its own crypto keys and public ledger just like any other legit digital currency. Everyone is a host to the currency, every participants’ computers serve as servers to the system and just like forex trading it is a zero-sum game, when you buy the coins there will be someone selling to you.
Who Is The Founder Of Pipcoin? However the inception of the idea can be credited to David Schwartz and the inception of the algorithm and mathematics behind to Ref Wayne, a 21 year old South African who is behind the creation of most high-tech forensic software as well as the indicators for financial trading platform (Forex Metatrader), it is without chance that the creation of Pipcoin is water-proof and crack-free.
Aside from the laughable wording, this is perhaps the most interesting part. If you can make it through this interview or this video his story sounds a lot like this "David Schwartz" story here. Excuse the popups but give it a read and obviously the comments at the bottom.
Is Pipcoin Legal? ...After all, there is no authority that can stop anyone from buying and selling a product online.
Do I Need To Provide Any Id Documents To Join Pipcoin is a cryptocurrency which means it’s completely encrypted, even for its users, it remains completely confidential. You don’t need to submit any documents.
erm... surely this goes against SO many laws in SA?
How Reliable Is This Website In Terms Of Security And Keeping Personal Data And Pipcoins [no ? at the end of these ones for some reason] We pay great attention to security and the confidential information on the website is protected by EV SSL. We don’t divulge any personal data of members to third parties. Your participation too, is strictly confidential.
thats...not really explaining it at all. SSL isnt the be-all and end all - but oh there's another one right below. Im sure that'll clear it up...
Are You Protected From Hackers We have installed power Anti-DDOS protection on our servers and have many other security measures.
All references to the ‘company,’ ‘us,’ ‘our,’ ‘we’ or ‘Pipchain’ means Pipchain South Africa S.a.r.l., a company registered under the laws of South Africa, with a share capital of EUR 55,222.08, having its registered address at L-2340 South Africa, 1, rue Philippe II, registered with the South Africa Trade and Companies Register under number B 190.078 (Business License number B190078).
I tried to find out if thats real but I couldnt figure out how to do it via the new http://www.cipc.co.za/ site.
AGREEMENT TO HOLD PIPCHAIN HARMLESS
7.2. If you are obligated to indemnify us, we will have the right, in our sole discretion, to control any action or proceeding (at our expense) and determine whether we wish to settle it.
9.1. You need not use a Pipchain Wallet. If you wish to use the Wallet, you must create a wallet with Pipchain to access the Services (“Wallet”)
10.5. No Storage or Transmission of Pipcoins. Pipcoins are an intangible, digital asset. They exist only by virtue of the ownership record maintained in the Pipcoin network. The Services do not store, send or receive Pipcoins. Any transfer of title that might occur in any Pipcoins occurs on the decentralized ledger within the Pipcoin network and not within the Services. We do not guarantee that the Service can effect the transfer of title or right in any Pipcoins.
10.8. No Cancellations or Modifications. Once transaction details have been submitted to the Pipcoin network via the Services, The Services cannot assist you to cancel or otherwise modify your transaction details. Pipchain has no control over the Pipcoin Network and does not have the ability to facilitate any cancellation or modification requests.
In the SABC interview (linked at the top of this post) the CEO says he took bitcoin and 'modified' it to be safer and so you can track 'stolen or lost' coins. So thats a lie.
DISCONTINUANCE OF SERVICES 15.1. We may, in our sole discretion and without cost to you, with or without prior notice and at any time, modify or discontinue, temporarily or permanently, any portion of our Services. You are solely responsible for storing, outside of the Services, a backup of any Wallet Address and Private Key pair that you maintain in your Wallet.
erm, ok but because PIPcoins can only be traded on their website and not transferred to anything else... how does that work?
17.1.3. Use any robot, spider, crawler, scraper or other automated means or interface not provided by us to access our Services or to extract data; 17.1.4. Use or attempt to use another user’s Wallet without authorization
the enter key is a hard one to find on a laptop I'll give them that one... ---- gets more wine --- They claim to have a 30-35% growth rate on any and all investments! Crazy returns. I did a bit of a google on them and immediately found these posts.
The company has promised that it will soon be issuing a debit card. Promising to issue a debit is an old trick used by fraudulent companies to create a false sense of trust and legitimacy to unsuspecting investors.
The transfer of pipcoins is verified by one sources, instead of 3 independent source as is usually the case with legitimate crypto currencies with a blockchain.
They also use wording similar to ‘get-rich-quick' scheme lines such as “Pipcoin will create over a 100 millionaires by the end of this financial year”. These are revealing signs of a fraudulent scheme. Moreover, pipcoin is a closed system, you cannot trade with anyone other than randomly chose people registered on the website. Their blockchain is not public or transparent, in fact, they do not have a blockchain and, if they do have one, then it is not operational.
So who's behind it? Who is this Ref dude? According to his Twitter bio he's "Youngest Billionaire in Africa | Founder of African 1st ever digital currency ! Get a minimum interest of 35% @infopipcoin" here are some choice images from his public FB:
I tried to register on https://mypipcoins.com/ but there's an ASPX error during the registration process and it kept trying to switch between https and http. Great start. I tried in all major browsers and they all failed so I gave up on trying to signup with my temp email [email protected] :( So then, lets take a closer look at the support they offer on their site. They've got one of those "live chat" widgets on their site and this evening there was actually someone online :) I said "hello" and saw "busi has joined the conversation" - sweet. Here is the transcript I downloaded before they killed the chat. Lucky I insta-clicked the download before they killed my chat session. As you can see by the chat log, Busi linked me to whats obviously the new 'site' they're launching this weekendhttps://pipchain.com/ The site looks a lot like the blockchain.info website. Their market page is awesome compared to blockchain.info's one! its even got a bigger market cap! Note the article links are all the same, except for two small things.
None of the links work...because
they've done a find&replace in the code, replacing all instances of "bitcoin" with "pipcoin" XD
Anyway, I thought I'd try signup on THIS site and lo 'n behold I managed to sign up! [email protected] lives! Here is PIPcoin's dashboard and here is Blockchain.info's dashboard. Here is PIPcoins transactions page and here is Blockchain.info's transaction page. So pretty much a blatant copy/pasta job. -- final thoughts -- Its unfortunate that the quality of journalism in SA is so weak. PIPcoin getting a lot of media attention for something thats honestly so dodgy, if you looked at it for more than 5 minutes you'd know. Many people are going to fall for this and if you look at the comments on twitter or on his FB posts or on any video calling out the scam you'll shake your head. Someone (not me) has even put this site together https://www.pipcoin.co/ which is as informative as it is awesome! Click the login and it takes you to "Logging in should be the last thing you should be worried about right now." and the bottom of the site has the best burn ever
"This website was built as a public service announcement by concerned citizens (and shows what a legitimate site should look like"
I did try connect with the 'owner' via twitter to find the source/calculation of the "R40 314 800,00 lost & counting" figure but so far no reply. Anyway its late and I'm going to bed. I hope you learnt something and if you see anyone in your social circles promoting this please make them aware. EDIT: Reddit formatting is hard. EDIT2: Got a reply from the person behind the pipcoin.co site - http://imgur.com/a/995oN which honestly shows the lack of skills the scheme has in the development/security field and now if you rewatch the interviews you can see why he's so scripted when talking about the tech stack. EDIT3: Sigh. I made a comment on the PIPcoin FB page to warn people about this and this is the response I found this morning - http://imgur.com/a/tFoAy I dont even know what/how to respond...
The digital currency market has been developed since the introduction of Bitcoin. It was the first time that blockchain “shares” were traded. Recently another currency was created:DIM (Data Interchange Module). There are two versions of DIM: DIMCOIN and DIM Currency. DIMCOIN is a speculative coin that can be traded with other digital currencies.DIM Currency is a digital currency which is linked to a particular equivalent of fiat money. Furthermore only DIM Currency is valid as a means of payment in the realm of the DIM ecosystem. The DIM ecosystem offers many services: digitisation of capital, trade with digital shares and property asset, digital exchange of currency, exchange of digital currency for fiat money, e-commerce, purchases with debit cards, commercial business and trade of commodities. All services are available for mobile and desktop. DIM and the DIM ecosystem are organised by the DIM Foundation and are based on on the NEM-blockchain-technology. This technology offers an unique two-sided interpretation with junction-reputation, spam-protection and time synchronisation by dint of so-called "super-junction" - to guarantee a safe online trade and safe online transaction. The access to the DIM ecosystem is provided by a personal DEPOTWALLET also from the DIMCOIN Foundation. As meeting inside the DIM Ecosystem for DIM (DIMCOIN and DIM Currencies) is WISE Consulting. The Hybrid Stock Exchange (HYBSE) is an online platform for global companies and investors that offers a rash of digital property assets like shares, ETCs(Exchange-Traded Commodities), ETFs (Exchange-Traded Funds), ETNs (Exchange-Traded Notes), Crypto-Forex Exchange, Index, Startups-IPO, Startup-ICO and Pirate Market. Why Dimcoin? Here are the advantages: You can buy and sell stocks without a broker. By this you save on commissions and bank fees when buying and selling digital assets. Furthermore you will get total control over your property. You hold your own property and can resist against garnishment. Only you can access your assets and no third party is involved.. Your "buy" and "sell" orders get executed in real-time on the blockchain. It’s a decentralised network that is always accessible 24/7 ). Service is included. The exemplary board of directors and advisors provide their vast knowledge of finance, policy and regulation to managing and advising DIMCOIN. The experienced team lend their understanding and ability in technology, financial services and compliance to developing and maintaining DIMCOIN. The investors include globally recognised venture capital firms and strategic investors. After investing with some of the most common cryptocurrencies you will receive an email within 10 days with instructions on how to receive your DIMCOIN / DIM TOKEN. You will need to download NEMs NanoWallet or DIMCOINs Depotwallet. Depotwallet is a blockchain wallet that permits users to buy, sell, manage and hold DIM cryptocurrencies and cryptonised assets. The wallet is free to download on the DIMCOIN, HYBSE and Depotwallet websites. The DIM Foundation is responsible for the management, creation and distribution of both the DIMCOIN and DIM Currencies. The price of DIMCOIN is determined by market forces and also influenced by developments within the DIM ecosystem. You can trade and convert DIMCOIN to DIM Currencies, then you will be able to buy cryptonised assets in the DIM ecosystem. Through Depotwallet debit cards users can perform online and walk-in merchant shopping. Anyone with a Depotwallet account can send and accept DIMCOIN. You can find all the crypto-equities on HYBSE.com, and you can purchase them through the Depotwallet (currently in beta phase). How To Register a Depotwallet: Visit: https://depotwallet.com/ Open Account Wallet name and Password and Create an account Save the “.wlt” file in a secure location Open text document Copy and paste the raw wallet file and private keys on a text document Check the boxes andagree! Difference between DIMCOIN and DIM TOKEN: The DIM TOKEN is something that is only available during the Pre-ICO and ICO period. Buying 50+ DIM TOKEN qualifies the user to receive a share of total 30% of the net transfer fees from the DIM Ecosystem. DIMCOIN is a speculative coin which is used for investing and within the DIM Ecosystem. How do you invest? You need to have a cryptocurrency wallet in order to purchase DIMCOIN, and you need to create a Depotwallet / NanoWallet in order to receive DIMCOIN. You can invest from the DIMCOIN website by following the instructions provided there. Invest with XEM and receive an additional 10% Bonus (depending on the time of your investment - check the website to get the last rate). Why should you invest? The current global stock markets are electronic in nature. In general, all electronic matching systems are quicker than the open outcry system of the past. However, it is still not quick enough for our ever-changing world. After orders are matched, it can take days for them to be executed. It is burdensome and expensive to buy assets such as shares from foreign markets using traditional methods such as banks and stock markets. Transferring shares between issuers and investors using current banking systems is archaic and lethargic at best. It can take from two days to six months before both parties are in possession of their assets. What does this token represent? 1 DIM Token will be equivalent to 100 DIMCOIN, each DIMCOIN is worth $0.01. The tokens represent a form of ownership of the DIM Ecosystem. Payout structure: Investors with +50 DIM Tokens will receive a share from 30% of the net fees earned on the DIM cryptocurrency transfers within the DIM ecosystem according to the percentage of tokens owned. Bonuses: Grid is constructed with regards to amount raised. Be clever - invest in DIM and use cryptocurrency! The DIM is a digital cryptocurrency which comes in two versions, the DIMCOIN and DIM Currencies. DIM Currencies are a digital currency for the DIM-ecosystem e-commerce and merchant purchasing. ICO started – the way to success: This year DIMCOIN will enlist in 3 major exchanges, reprogram HYBSE into a blockchain platform and launch an application on Android. Have 50 companies listed on HYBSE. In 2018 is the implementation of HYBSE on blockchain, launch mobile phone trading for Android and have DIM Currencies accepted for commercial purposes. Expand operations into Asia. 2019: Have 1% share of the global trading done on DIM ecosystem, list ecosystem on global stock markets and implement DIM ATMs. Expand operations to South America. 2020: List the DIM ecosystem on global stock markets. Expand operations into Africa. DIMCOINS - the best kind of digital currency! Forum/Thread: Original Thread https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1986414.0 Bounty Thread https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2049950.msg20424953#msg20424953 ICO Invest Site: https://www.dimcoin.io/ Wallet https://www.depotwallet.com Hardware/Wallet https://trezor.io/ German Telegram Group: https://t.me/joinchat/E1huKURK_AxFvzpiWpCW2A Englisch Telegram Group: https://t.me/dimcoinICO Social Media: https://twitter.com/DIMCOIN_ICOhttps://www.facebook.com/DIMCOINICO/https://www.instagram.com/dimcoinico_/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYe1NDNT6oo
To summarize my experience with the "product." It is 99.9% stalling and wasting your time with shit like this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=za3tUUoj2iQ and hyping their own products. Dudes acting like "whaaaaaaaa" and showing phone screens with profits. Facebook is flooded with these people showing off how their boy "[insert name here]" is selling money and yada yada. Most of the content they post and host is just recruitment hype videos to bring more people in. Seriously... Like all day every day it felt like. Most the videos feature some hipsters and text screenshots of them being like: "OMG I gots some mad pips brah, 100 million pipz lulz #winning [intense sarcasm]." Do yourself a favor and unfriend anyone who tries to sell you this shit. Because they are not your friend, and they view you as a $35 a month paycheck if you sign up. Most the common stuff you see in groups is people touting the wins, but don't fool yourself... Everyone is keeping their losses quiet because no one wants to make a fool out of themselves. I mean who makes videos of them watching someone else in video chat? Someone who doesn't know what the hell their doing or how to work technology... Which they happen to have some miracle program that will "change" your life. Oh, and the haters, HA you should just ignore them because they all don't like grape koolaide. TL:DR Oh, look ma some YOLO saying swag fags are saying they can teach me to make mad bread. But it is just a job selling a job selling jobs to other people who in turn will be selling said jobs to others who will do the same. 4/24/16 EDIT This is the kind of shit that constantly keeps popping up in my feeds and spamming my cell phone in texts. I just got started with Global Visionariez and iMarketsLive, What is next?! First off, Welcome to our family! My name is[removed name of person] Founder of GV, an organization that is changing lives and lifestyles around the globe. It's an honor to have you apart of the revolutionary team where our visions align towards a common cause. We have some of the best leadership hand to hand with the greatest opportunity in the game right now, which makes it a complete power house! The goal is the be able take the average person and have them take the road less travelled towards becoming an entrepreneur and attaining true freedom! The skills you will learn working along side with GV and IML are long lasting skills that you can pass down for generations to come and will help you develop and craft yourself into becoming the best version of yourself. We live by the Triple T's; TRADE. TRAVEL. TRANSFORM. Lifestyle by design. As we believe these are some of the main 3 keys towards freedom and happiness! 📈.✈.🚧. Let's get started, you just bought your new car, now let's adjust the seats it to how you like it and what you want. The first thing you want to do is be able to get activated on your services and plugged into the sessions. 🔌 STAY PLUGGED IN AROUND THE CAMPFIRE 🔸 Subscribe To GV Updates [removed link] 📡Want to EARN before you LEARN and get connected to the Automatic Mirror Trader? [link removed] (1) FIRST create your broker account (Trading Funds Account) Choose the broker of your choice, we suggest Tradersway or FXCM 🔸 Tradersway ($8/month on FxSignalsLive - Better Leverage) INCLUDING PROMOTION (Less Deposit Fees, 18+, Deposit Bonus) [link removed] 🔸 FXCM (FREE on FxSignalsLive): [link removed] (2) How To Set Up Your Mirror-Trader? [more yolo swag links removed...] 📈📉 Want to start trading yourself? It's CRUCIAL to LEARN before you try to EARN trading yourself! Practice, practice, practice before you go LIVE. RULE #1, Don't EVER EVER EVER try to PREDICT the markets yourself, Don't have a gambling mindset! Be smart, Be strategic. Start with a DEMO account until you feel comfortable enough to trade with REAL money (30-90+ DAYS). If you want to start trading your real money deposit and connect with an MIRROR-TRADER [link removed] and trade with Chris Terry during LONDON / NY Sessions! Keep in mind, TRADING is 80% Mental (Psychology) and 20% Fundamental (Skillset) 📚(1) EDUCATE YOURSELF (STUDY more than you TRADE): 🔸 IML EDUCATION: Log into imarketslive.com -> TRADING -> TRADING LIBRARY 🔸 BEGINNERS KNOWLEDGE A-Z: [link removed] ; ⚠COMPLETE Pre-School before trading live 🔸 GVWSA COURSE: [link removed] ($50 one time) 🐾GV WALLSTREET (GVWSA): Train with Quillan Black through his legendary discounted course for IML members ONLY for $50 one time, completely up to you if you would like access, feel free to ask anyone around GV if it was worth it. If you plan to go to the next level trading and marking up charts you want to plug in ASAP! (2) SET UP MT4 (Trading Platform) + IML HARMONIC SCANNER 🔸 Download "MetaTrader 4" through App Store 🔸 Download MT4 / Scanner (Windows) [link removed] 🔸 Download MT4 /Scanner (MAC) [link removed] ⚠ Make sure you go through the Harmonic Scanner Course in IML Backoffice before you start using it. The Harmonic Scanner is primarily a confirmation tool to combine with your own analysis do NOT take trades off of it based of its entry calls, it is not 100% right neither would any software ever be. Use this in the right way and you will rock your world! (3) TRADE and LEARN with C. Terry 🔸 LONDON SESSION (Tues, Wed, Thurs) ⏰ 2am EST - 3am EST [more links removed] 🔸 NEW YORK SESSION (Mon - Fri) FOREX + FUTURES ⏰ 8am EST - 12pm EST [link removed] FULL RISK DISCLOSURE: Trading contains substantial risk and is not for every investor. An investor could potentially lose all or more than the initial investment. Risk capital is money that can be lost without jeopardizing ones financial security or life style. Only risk capital should be used for trading and only those with sufficient risk capital should consider trading. Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results. 🗣 Paid sharing a retail service that is teaching you a financially independent skillset and helping you generate wealth in the worst economy? The FACT that you can potentially earn RESIDUAL income by sharing (marketing) a service that you would share for free anyways! The average MILLIONAIRE has 7 streams of income and never puts all of their eggs in one basket, especially throughout your journey of becoming a trader, the comfort of knowing you have a weekly residual income while you are trading in the markets truly powerful! YOUR FIRST GOAL ASAP........PERFECT STORM BONUS IN YOUR FIRST 14 DAYS. How to SHARE: What is Forex?: [link removed] What is IML (Overview): [link removed] Compensation Plan PDF: [link removed] Compensation Plan Video: [link removed] **TAG THE NEWEST MEMBER TO HAVE THEM START OFF THE RIGHT FOOT👇👇👇 edit 2 Removed links from post, I apologize I didn't notice the rule for this subreddit and fixed it before an admin got onto me. =) Edit/update 3* 5-21-16 Been a while now, still end up getting spam texts and other crap in my inbox on social media and email.
Looking for Beta Users for Groundbreaking P2P Swap Trading System, Maximum Leverage, Minimum Risk, All Markets
I'm looking for traders to take positions (either in agreement with, or contrary to) my research/opinion or using your own trade setups and fundamental/macro outlook - via our P2P swap platform. You can use actual capital or I can give you test capital, basically, play money, to trade with me and my team and all I ask for is feedback on the system and the ability to quote you (which is not mandatory, but it would be nice). You can trade stocks, bonds, commodities, forex and forex pairs long or short, or swap the exposures directly for another asset, ex. S&P 500 for the LSE 100, Apple for Google, etc. Fees start at 5 bp, the best available from anywhere. Digital leverage is available, up to 10,000x worth (double digit profits/losses can be had from 11 basis points in movement, or less - so be careful), with no possibility of a Margin Call since the trades are pre-funded. If you think the opportunity is worthwhile, feel free to contact us or see info sheet below for more... Macro Trading Has a New Power Tool: Peer to Peer, Counterparty Risk-Free Swaps for Value Transfer & Trading Trade the value of over 45,000 tickers of instruments in every asset class from every major geography and exchange with up to 10,000x pricing leverage without concerns of counterparty/credit/default risk or margin calls. Very big claims… substantiated by a very big discovery in value transfer and security. Veritaseum is the worldwide leader in the financial implementation of “smart contracts” – unbreakable, self-executing bilateral agreements between two or more parties. We use these smart contracts to create peer to peer swaps for the transfer of value through the “blockchain,” a worldwide, open ledger of pseudonymous transactions that can be seen and audited by anyone, any time in the cloud. The blockchain is considered unhackable and one of the most secure implementations of cryptography to date. With the use of financial “wallets”, client side applications that use a simple interface to guide users in the quick (as in minutes – enter ticker(s), amount to risk, collateral, expiry and leverage required) creation of a smart contract (in this case a P2P swap), users trade OTC directly with other parties – totally bypassing and intermediating exchanges, with even less risk. Monetary value is committed up front, a leverage factor is digitally dialed in (anywhere from 2x to 10,000x) and the smart contract is created and sent to the blockchain to await a match. Once matched, the funds are locked into the transaction until expiry, at which point profits and losses are distributed along with principal and unused collateral (the capital chosen to be put at risk). A novel, risk averse, extremely powerful, and quite frankly - ingenious way to trade macro strategies. Not only can one go long or short any ticker in any asset class from any region for any currency, one can go long one ticker relative to another. For instance, those with a bearish outlook on the S&P 500 normally short it for USD. You can now short (pay) the S&P 500 index directly while going long (receiving) Eurozone equities (or 10 year treasury yields, or Swiss francs or the CNYJPY pair or bitocin), in a single transaction – with or out without leverage. Since the exchange is peer to peer, we never hold or control any of your assets, hence you are not exposed to our balance sheet, credit, default or counterparty risks (the blockchain is your effective counterparty). Veritaseum is a software concern, not a financial concern or intermediary! You can always track your assets and trade through the blockchain at any time. The capital is loaded in the wallet in the form of bitcoin, and for those who choose to minimize exposure to bitcoin market price volatility, leverage can be used to nearly eliminate the noise. You can also conduct trades using a demo mode and test coins, so as to use the system without risking actual capital.
Smart Contracts as Transaction Vehicles: The Safest Possible Way To Exchange Value
Veritaseum's UltraCoin smart contracts are: 1. highly flexible - you design your own derivatives yourself using your own parameters via our simple graphical user interface 2. self-executing 3. autonomous 4. unbreachable: we call them, the unbreakable promise! They are backed, fortified and stored by/on the blockchain itself 5. uber-transparent: simple click the "trace transaction" button to find the location and historical travel path of your assets anytime, from anywhere you have an internet connection
Trading Through a Balance Sheet-Based Financial Institution vs. Distributed, Decentralized, P2P Software Concern
What I do want to accomplish is the education through the fact that the Bitcoin protocol has given rise to the genesis of a new type of company, with a new business model that can offer a totally new type of product. As you were able to see from above, Veritaseum's UltraCoin offers a very uniquer product with many if not all of the attributes that potential competitors offer, with a slew of attributes that others can't touch. This is done at 1/5th of the price and at much less risk! When dealing with Veritaseum's UltraCoin, you can never get Gox'd because we never have (nor do we want) possession of your coins or fiat - every, at any time. Because we don't user our balance sheet (we are a software company, not a centralized exchange or brokedealer) you:
are never exposed to us as a counterparty, we make the blockchain your counterparty
never have to worry about our capital reserves or the capitalization/credit of your initial counterparty (all trades are fully funded at the outset, even a heavily levered trade at 10,000x),
You never have to worry about negative drawdowns, negative equity or margin calls
If a catastrophic event were to occur, say bi-coastal earthquake takes out our datacenters on the east and west coasts simultaneously while a meteor hits the backup center in the midwest, you will still be able to recover you funds - on your own. Since we do not have possession of your funds you don't have to worry about us absconding with them nor getting blown up with them. Each trade has a catastrophic rollback feature which will put you back into your original funding position n-time units after expiry. Unfortunately, you will not be able to complete your trade, but if two bi-coastal trades hit at the same time as meteor to the mid-west, you may not be studying that EUR short anyway :-)
This is just the beginning of what is capable with our Internet 2.0 business models. I implore you to download our:
and of course, the UltraCoin BTC wallet for Windows - or - Mac & Linux, which doubles as the trading client. The wallets have a "Demo Mode" which allows you to trade on testnet if, after using the spreadsheet modeler, you are still not comfortable committing live coins. You can get the demo (testnet) coins here.
Lykke is building a global marketplace for the free exchange of financial assets. By leveraging the power of emerging technology, our platform eliminates market inefficiencies, promotes equal access from anywhere in the world, and supports the trade of any object of value. The Lykke Exchange is fast and secure. Users receive direct ownership of assets with immediate settlement from any mobile device. You can try Lykke Wallet, available for both iOS / Android. Here’s a quick video to get you started.
What is Blockchain Technology?
The Lykke marketplace uses the distributed ledger, which is blockchain technology pioneered by Bitcoin. This technology incorporates a protocol for decentralized data storage in the chain of blocks, where the consistency of the data is guaranteed by the cryptography and consensus of multiple nodes.
What are LKK coins?
A Lykke coin (LKK) is a cryptographic token that represents ownership of Lykke, a Swiss registered corporation. There is no mining and currently it's not listed on other exchanges (although that may change). 100 LKK represent 1 share of Lykke Corp. Read more at our Information Memorandum
Lykke Blog - Recent developments, analysis and other articles
Most Frequently Asked Questions
How does LKK1Y works?
Lykke 1-year forward coin (LKK1Y) is essentially a derivative on LKK. Buyer of 1 LKK1Y can purchase the right to receive 1 LKK in 365 days after they ask for the delivery. In other words, there is no fixed maturity date: if you buy a Lykke forward contract, you can execute it at any date and after 1 year passes the Lykke coins will be delivered. You can read more at What is Lykke Forward? blog post.
How does Lykke earn money?
Commissions are zero, so Lykke earns revenue from value-add services such as liquidity provision, issuance services, white-labeling, and B2B consulting.
If I own Lykke coins, am I considered to be a shareholder of Lykke Corp?
Yes. If you own Lykke coins, you are entitled to become shareholders of Lykke Corp, provided that you submit to our minimum KYC requirements. Shareholders have additional rights, such as voting and receiving dividends.
Will LKK coins pay dividends?
Yes. They will when the company decides to pay profits to investors, rather than re-invest to fuel growth. As with most startups, dividends may be some time away.
Are there plans to list LKK in other exchanges?
Yes, the roadmap currently states it’s a medium term goal.
How does Lykke differ from other crypto ventures?
Lykke is not a cryptocurrency or distributed ledger technology venture; we are building a marketplace that integrates seamlessly with the existing financial system. Our trading venue uses a matching engine to cross buy and sell orders. The accounting, delivery, and settlement of traded assets use distributed ledger technology. Our initial focus is the foreign exchange market with a daily transaction volume of 4 trillion USD, the biggest financial market in the world.
I am a US citizen and can't download the App. When will Lykke be available in my country?
Hopefully soon, this is only temporary as Lykke requires licenses to be fully compliant in many countries. It’s currently not available in Australia, Japan, Canada and the US (which greatly differs from other countries as states have different laws). At first only some states would be available (or only certain assets could be tradeable) but eventually with more blockchain technology acceptance and adoption more should follow.
Is Lykke Exchange only available on mobile?
Currently yes, however a web trading platform is being developed and part of the medium term roadmap.
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Keep this in mind as you trade and discover more about binary options to optimize your learning experience. Are the trades on the Binary Boom website actually live and occurring today this very second"? Is exactly what I'm seeing the REAL live price of the currency pairs? Yes, trades are genuine. And yes, you see the REAL TIME rate of each currency pair traded. Exactly what you're seeing are genuine trades that Binary Boom is placing right now in my Binary Options brokerage account, as they're being traded. The entry and expiry prices and times are all accurate and precise. The only thing they delay on the site is whether the trade is a CALL or a PUT ... and I do that for only 20 seconds. Click Here And Watch This Video And Learn Why The Trades Are LIVE Why does binary boom delay this information? So People can not copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website, and because a 20 second delay is fair: on the one hand, They as much better results due to the fact that these are 60 second Binary options trades and rate can still change throughout the last 40 seconds. On the other hand, anyone attempting to copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website won't get the real outcomes of Binary Boom as they'll be copying trades that are 20 seconds old. Why are they delaying whether a trade is a CALL or a PUT by 20 seconds? So people can't copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website. So dennis anker decided that a 20 second delay was fair because it prevents manually copying the trades, but it doesn't enable enough time to falsify the results you see with any degree of consistency. That's a win win situation - I can be sure that no one is copying trades from the Binary Boom site and you can be sure that the outcomes are genuine. Is it possible for you to control the published outcomes by concealing the CALL/ PUT status for 20 seconds? No, it's IMPOSSIBLE. Here's why: BinaryBoom places 60 second Binary options trades. This is very important because when binary boom spots a trend it will place multiple trades for maximum profits! If you're streaming existing market prices, it's difficult to know which rate will be 60 seconds from now. It's likewise impossible to understand which rate will certainly be 40 seconds from now. Simply puts, the preliminary 20 seconds of each trade offers dennis anker NO benefit in knowing where rate will certainly be when a 60 second Binary Options trade expires. Do not believe me? try it yourself! Do the following: Go to ANY broker, select any currency pair, then try speculating if cost will be above or below the existing market price after 40 seconds. Wait 40 seconds. Do that 10 times. I ENSURE you will not be right more than 3 4 times! The ONLY reason dennis postpone revealing the CALL/ PUT condition of a trade is merely to prevent people copying trades straight from the web site. Is it safe to download the BinaryBoom software? Yes, downloading is 100% safe for 2 factors. First, binary boom is a Microsoft Verified Publisher. That indicates dennis has given a special "certification" that confirms the validity of the binary boom software, that it does not contain a virus, malware, and so on, that it's 100 % clean and hasn't been tampered with in any way. It's really HARD to get this kind of certification, but means that software publishers who do are the most reliable on the web. The "certification" is embedded in the binary boom application and recognized by Windows, so you can verify that binary boom is a Microsoft Verified Publisher merely looking for this when installing BinaryBoom: KEEP IN MIND: NEVER set up software application that doesn't show the name of the business in the Verified Publisher field. 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